Jewish Learning

Shabbat Guide

Shabbat Guide

JUF is pleased to provide this basic guide to celebrating Shabbat.

The Holocaust Project

Encyclopedia Britannica Holocaust Project

JUF partners with Encyclopedia Britannica to bring you their collection of Britannica's Holocaust Project resources.

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Jewish Word Glossary

Glossary Key

abbr. = abbreviated
esp .= especially
Heb. = Hebrew
lit. = literally
n = noun
pl. = plural
pron. = pronounced
usu. = usually
v = verb
Yid. = Yiddish

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L
M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

M

Ma'arat HaMachpela
Tomb of the Patriarchs, in Chevron (Hebron)
ma'ariv
evening prayer
ma'aseh 
lit.=action: anecdote
Maccabi
follower of Judah of the Maccabis
maccabiah
Jewish preteen mini-Olympics (cap. if official version)
machotin
child's father-in-law
machatonim
child's spouse's parents, co-in-laws
machatonista
child's mother-in-law
macher
lit.=maker: mover-and-shaker
machmir
strict, esp. with regard to observance of halachah
machsheifeh
witch, harpy
machzor
holiday prayerbook, esp. for High Holidays
madrich
camp counselor; youth-group leader; tour guide
mafte'ach
lit.=opener: key
maidel
lit.=maiden: (Yid.) young woman
makos
(Heb.) whip-lashes; plagues
Mama Loshon
lit.=mother tongue: Yiddish
mamosh 
definitive(ly)
mandel brot
almond pastry
makol
permissive, esp. with regard to observance of halachah
makpid
rigorous, esp. with regard to details of halachah
malon
(Heb.) hotel
mahair
(Heb.) hurry, "Hurry up!"
ma hasha'ah
lit.=what's the hour?: "What time is it?"
ma koreh
lit.=what happens?: "What's hapening? What's up?"
ma nishma
lit.=what will we hear?: "What's going on? What's new?"
Ma Nishtanah
"What Distinguishes?" set of children's questions in Haggadah, the "Four Questions"
maot chitim
lit.=wheat money: charity given for poor to buy matzah
Marrano
lit.=pig: derogatory name for Converso
marror
bitter herb eaten on Pesach
mashgiach 
kashrut consultant
matzah (pl. matzot)
unleavened, or yeast-free, bread, esp. eaten on Pesach
matzah brei
French-toasted matzah
matzav
lit.=situation: state of terror, terrorism
matzevah
tombstone
matzlema
lit.=image-maker: camera
mayveen
(Heb.) understand; speak a language
mayven
lit.=understander: expert; know-it-all
mazel
lit.=constellation: luck
Mazel Tov
lit.= (a) good star: "Congratulations!"
mazik
impish person, esp. a child
mechaya
lit.= which makes live: relief; joy (said of a person, thing, or situation)
mechilah 
forgiveness, esp. of sin or personal slight
mechitza
partition between men and women in shul
medina
country (the actual territory)
Medinat Yisrael
(Heb.) The State of Israel
megillah
(Heb.) Esther, Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations; (Yid.) any long, drawn-out story
Megillah
The Book of Esther
mekabel 
lit.=accepting: embracing a concept or interpretation [adj.]
melamed
religious teacher, esp. a non-rabbi
melaveh malkeh
Shabbat party
melech/Melech
king/ capitalize in reference to G-d
meltzar(eet) 
waiter (waitress)
menachem avel
lit.=comforting a mourner: paying a condolence call
menorah
candelabra, esp. for Chanukah
mensch (pl. menschen)
(Yid.) upstanding person
menschlach
decent, morally upright, polite
menuvl 
detestable one
me'od
(Heb.) very; much
meshulach
lit.=sent one: messenger, esp. one seeking funding for an organization
meshuge
(Yid). crazy
meshugene
(Yid.) crazy one
metziah
lit.=a find: a bargain
mezeg avir
lit.=condition of (the) air: the weather
mezuma
lit.=ready: ready money, esp. cash
mezuman
lit.=ready: quorum of three adults needed for pre-Birkat HaMazon blessing
mezuzah
biblical passage on a parchment scroll, placed in an ornamental case and affixed to a doorpost
midot
lit.=measures: manners, behavior, conduct
Midrash
collection of extra-biblical stories
mikvah
ritual bath
milchamah
war
milchig
dairy
mincha
afternoon prayer
minyan
quorum of 10 required for certain prayers
mishalach manot
gifts of food given on Purim
misheberach
blessing of healing given during kriyat haTorah
mishegas
(Yid). craziness, nonsense, absurdity; eccentricity
mishpacha
(Heb.) family
Mishkan
portable Holy Temple used during Exodus
mishmash
eclectic collection or arrangement
Mishnah
oral law, parallel to Torah. Written down circa 200 C.E.
mitn derinnin
lit.=in the middle of it: (Yid.) "All of a sudden..!"
mitzvah (pl. mitzvot)
religious commandment; (slang) favor, good deed
Mizbe'ach
altar used in Holy Temple
mizrach
east, dir. American Jews face when praying
Mizrachi
Orthodox Zionist movement
mochel 
forgiving [adj.]
Mogen David
lit.=Shield of David: Jewish star
mohel
one who performs circumcisions
Mordechai
hero of Book of Esther
moshav
kibbutz, but with more private property
Moshe Kapoyer
one who does everything backward (from a fictional character)
Moshiach
the Messiah
moshol
parable, fable, usu. with a moral
motzo'ei Shabbat
lit.=(the) leaving of Shabbat: Saturday night, after the end of Shabbat
motzi
see "HaMotzi"
muktzah
forbidden on Shabbat, said esp. of an object
musaf
lit.=gathered: additional post-shacharit prayers on holidays
mussar
constructive criticism